Op deze pagina vindt u onze publicaties omtrent ROMIC in nationale en internationale tijdschriften in chronologisch aflopende volgorde. Daarnaast vindt u onderaan de pagina overige relevante literatuur.

Eigen publicaties:

Publicatie in het Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde

Publicatiedatum: 05-07-2021
Titel: Preventieve adnexextirpatie bij vrouwen met dikkedarmkanker?
Auteurs: R. van der Meer, Ignace H.J.T. de Hingh en Rudi M.H. Roumen
Tijdschrift: NTvG

Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy (PSO) can be offered to all patients suffering from colorectal cancer to prevent ovarian metastasis (OM). Arguments to offer PSO are given for discussion: 1. PSO for colorectal cancer is mentioned in various guidelines, 2. Other disciplines such as gynecology and urology, offer or routinely perform PSO during abdominal surgery, 3. A better prognosis could be achieved, 4. It has been shown that systemic therapy has limited effects on OM, since ovaria are considered to be ‘sanctuary sites’, 5. In postmenopausal women negative side effects of PSO are expected to be very low, 6. PSO for prevention of OM is thought to be a cost effective oncological procedure, 7. Reducing the risk of the occurrence of primary ovarian cancer could be a positive side effect, and 8. It is part of ‘shared decision making’.

Beschikbaar via: https://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/preventieve-adnexextirpatie-bij-vrouwen-met-dikkedarmkanker

Publicatie in International Journal of Colorectal Disease

Publicatiedatum: 10-3-2020
Titel: Incidence, risk factors, treatment, and survival of ovarian metastases of colorectal origin: a Dutch population-based study
Auteurs: C. Bakkers, R. van der Meer, R. M. Roumen, R. J. Lurvink, V. E. Lemmens, F. N. van Erning, I. H. de Hingh


Objective: The aim of this nationwide study was to provide insight in the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and survival of patients with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used. All newly diagnosed female CRC patients between 2008 and 2016 were included. Treatment was categorized as follows: cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC); resection of the primary tumor; palliative treatment; and no treatment. Overall survival (OS) was investigated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses.

Results: Of 53,883 female CRC patients, 11,343 (21.1%) had metastases at time of diagnosis. Among them, 471 (4.2%) had ovarian metastases. Within latter group, 27.2% received CRS-HIPEC; 38.4% underwent resection of the primary tumor; 25.3% received palliative treatment; and 9.1% received no treatment. Median OS of all patients with ovarian metastases was 17.5 months. In patients receiving CRS-HIPEC, OS was significantly longer than in patients undergoing resection only (median OS 34.1 vs. 17.5 months, adjusted HR 0.44 [0.33-0.66]). Five-year OS was 28.5% for patients having underwent CRS-HIPEC, 11.0% for patients having underwent resection of the primary tumor, 1.2% for patients having underwent palliative treatment, and 0.0% for patients without treatment.

Conclusions: Synchronous ovarian metastases are diagnosed in 4.2% of female colorectal patients presenting with metastatic disease. Risk factors are young age, T4/N+ tumor and histology of signet ring cell carcinoma. Median OS of the entire cohort was 17.5 months, ranging from 3.1 months in patients without treatment to 34.1 months in patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32157379/

Overige relevante literatuur:

Titel: Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Impact of Oophorectomy for Ovarian Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

Auteurs: Ursem et al.
Tijdschrift: The Oncologist
Publicatiejaar: 2020


Background: As survival with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and imaging modalities improve, detection of ovarian metastases may be increasing. The ovary may serve as a sanctuary site for malignant cells; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the role for oophorectomy.

Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective study of patients with CRC with ovarian metastases from 2009 to 2017. We evaluated patient, disease, and treatment related factors associated with overall survival (OS) from initial diagnosis of metastatic CRC.

Results: Of 108 patients assessed, the median age was 50, 19% had localized disease at initial presentation, 64% had ovarian metastases at initial CRC diagnosis, and 77% underwent oophorectomy. Median OS was 29.6 months across all patients, and it was 36.7 months in patients who underwent oophorectomy versus 25.0 months in patients who did not (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54). In multivariate analysis, the effect of oophorectomy on OS suggested protection but was not statistically significant (HR 0.57). Resection of primary tumor was performed in 71% of patients, which was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.21). Twelve patients (11%) remained alive at 5 years after diagnosis of metastatic disease.

Conclusion: Although it has been previously reported that patients with CRC with ovarian metastases have poor prognosis, the median OS for this cohort was comparable to existing OS data for patients with metastatic CRC. In patients treated with chemotherapy, we did not find the ovarian metastasis to frequently serve as a sanctuary site of disease. However, we found that in carefully selected patients, oophorectomy may confer a survival benefit.

Implications for practice: In colorectal cancer (CRC) ovarian metastasis is not necessarily associated with worse prognosis than metastasis to other sites. In carefully selected patients with ovarian metastases from CRC, oophorectomy may confer a survival benefit. Specifically, development of ovarian metastasis early in the disease course, resection of the primary tumor, and limited extraovarian metastatic disease are clinical features that are potentially associated with benefit from oophorectomy. A subset of patients with ovarian metastasis from CRC have potential to become long-term survivors (>5 years).

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32031306/

Titel: Metachronous Ovarian Metastases in a Patient with Primary Colorectal Cancer. A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Auteurs: Paramythiotis et al.
Tijdschrift: American Journal of Case Reports
Publicatiejaar: 2019


Background: Metachronous ovarian metastasis from primary colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare condition that is diagnosed after the treatment of CRC. In most cases, ovarian metastases present without specific symptoms or signs and are usually diagnosed during follow-up imaging. A rare case is presented of metachronous ovarian metastasis from primary CRC, diagnosed on follow-up by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and includes a review of the literature.

Case report: A 66-year-old woman recently underwent a left hemicolectomy for a stage T3, N0, M0 primary adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, which was completely excised. Three years later, follow-up CT and MRI imaging showed a right ovarian cyst. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which identified tumor in the right ovary. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed metachronous ovarian metastasis from CRC. The patient was referred for further treatment.

Conclusions: Newly-diagnosed ovarian metastasis from primary colorectal cancer (CRC) is challenging to diagnose and manage, and may initially be incorrectly diagnosed as malignancy of primary ovarian origin. This case demonstrated that it is important to confirm the diagnosis with imaging, histology, and the appropriate use of tumor markers. Because ovarian metastases do not respond favorably to chemotherapy, the treatment of choice is surgery. However, for women who are treated for CRC, the use of prophylactic oophorectomy remains controversial.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31611546/

Titel: Risk of Ovarian Involvement in Advanced Colorectal or Appendiceal Tumors Involving the Peritoneum

Auteurs: Mehta et al.
Tijdschrift: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
Publicatiejaar: 2017


Background: Ovarian metastases of GI tumors grow rapidly and are relatively resistant to systemic chemotherapy. They may be unilateral or bilateral and macroscopic or occult. The risk of macroscopic ovarian involvement or occult involvement of macroscopically normal ovaries is unquantified.

Objective: This study aims to quantify the risks of ovarian involvement in patients with peritoneal malignancy undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Design: This was a retrospective analysis of a dedicated prospective malignancy database.

Settings: This study was conducted at a high-volume tertiary referral center for peritoneal malignancy.

Patients: Female patients with at least 1 remaining ovary, undergoing complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for appendiceal tumors or colorectal peritoneal metastases between January 2010 and March 2015 were included.

Outcome measures: Data regarding ovarian involvement was extracted from surgical and histological records.

Results: Two hundred fifty-eight female patients with at least 1 ovary underwent complete cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy during the study period. In total, 141 of 258 (54.7%) patients had ovarian tumor involvement, and 80% with at least 1 macroscopically abnormal ovary had bilateral involvement. Of 40 patients with 1 macroscopic ovarian metastasis, microscopic involvement of the contralateral ovary was found in 18 of 40 (45.0%). Of 141 patients in whom both ovaries were macroscopically normal, 24 of 141 (17.0%) patients had microscopic ovarian involvement.

Limitations: The retrospective nature limits the interpretation of these results.

Conclusions: Occult malignancy was present in 17% when both ovaries looked macroscopically normal and in 45% of contralateral normal-looking ovaries if the other ovary was macroscopically involved. These results help to inform preoperative consent and intraoperative decision making in patients with advanced appendiceal and colorectal malignancy, and are of benefit in managing advanced lower GI tract malignancy.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28594718/

Titel: The differential response to chemotherapy of ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma

Auteurs: Goéré et al.
Tijdschrift: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Publicatiejaar: 2008


Patients and methods: All patients with metastatic (ovarian and extraovarian) CRC who underwent resection of ovarian metastases in our institution from April 1988 to August 2006 were analyzed and the response to preoperative chemotherapy was evaluated according to the RECIST criteria, and analyzed with respect to the sites of metastases (ovarian and extraovarian).

Results: The studied population consisted of 23 women. At presentation, 20 patients had symptoms. Preoperative chemotherapy resulted in tumor control of measurable extraovarian metastases in 65% of cases. In contrast, no objective tumor response of ovarian metastases was observed, disease stabilization was obtained in only 3 patients (13%), and progression or occurrence of new ovarian metastases were observed in 20 patients (87%) (p=0.0005). With a median follow-up of 54 months [15-229], median overall survival was 30 months, and 3-year overall survival was 18%.

Conclusion: Ovarian metastases are less responsive to chemotherapy compared to other sites. As these “metastatic sanctuaries” often cause symptoms, surgical resection should always be considered for ovarian metastases, even in the case of associated extraovarian metastases.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18455357/

Titel: Biologic Basis of Ovarian Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer

Auteurs: Danesi et al.
Tijdschrift: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Publicatiejaar: 2004

Conclusion: The stromal cell–cancer cell interaction, increased angiogenesis, abundance of EGF and HGF, and prostaglandins may make the ovarian microenvironment a preferred tissue of implantation of colorectal cancer cells and provide the biologic basis of aggressive surgery to remove a potential site of tumor recurrence.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15025794/

Titel: Ovarian Neoplasms in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Role of Prophylactic Oophorectomy

Auteurs: Hanna et al.
Tijdschrift: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Publicatiejaar: 2004


Although the role of prophylactic oophorectomy is currently under debate and not well defined, it is of increasing and considerable relevance, especially in premenopausal women, particularly those with identifiable hereditary cancer syndromes. Patients with colorectal cancer with ovarian metastases are often symptomatic, require surgery, and have poor survival. Prophylactic oophorectomy abolishes the increased risk of primary ovarian cancer in these patients, resects synchronous metastases, and prevents development of metachronous ovarian metastases. Prophylactic oophorectomy trials, mostly conducted in postmenopausal women, have not shown survival advantage. In patients with ovarian metastases of colorectal cancer, maximal cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant therapy employing newer chemotherapeutic agents, whole abdominal irradiation with chemosensitization, or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy may improve outcomes in selected patients.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15025793/

Titel: Prophylactic oophorectomy in colorectal carcinoma: preliminary results of a randomized, prospective trial

Auteurs: Young-Fadok et al.
Tijdschrift: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
Publicatiejaar: 1998


Controversy exists regarding the role of prophylactic oophorectomy during resection for primary colorectal cancer.

Purpose: A prospective, randomized trial was initiated to evaluate the influence of oophorectomy on recurrence and survival in patients with Dukes Stages B and C colorectal cancer.

Method: Between November 1986 and March 1997, 155 patients were randomized to oophorectomy or no oophorectomy at laparotomy for resection of colorectal cancer.

Results: No incidence of gross or microscopic metastatic disease to the ovary was found among 77 patients randomized to oophorectomy, in contrast to previous reports. Preliminary crude survival curves suggested a survival benefit for oophorectomy between two and three years from surgery, but Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that this was not statistically significant and the benefit does not appear to persist at five years. Kaplan-Meier curves of recurrence-free survival, however, suggest a more substantial separation of the curves, with 80 percent vs. 65 percent five-year disease-free survival for oophorectomy vs. nonoophorectomy, but further patient accrual is necessary to provide sufficient statistical power.

Conclusions: Occult colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the ovaries has not been documented in this series of putative Dukes Stages B and C tumors. The possibility of a recurrence-free survival advantage emphasizes the need to continue this preliminary work.

Beschikbaar via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9514421/